Artificial intelligence the whole world is speaking of it. It seems that we are at the dawn of new age, the age of AI. Now let’s start with a simple formal definition of AI. “AI refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions”. That means it was developed to help us and behave like us, like humans. Most companies are willing to take up AI technology to try to reduce operational costs, increase efficiency, and to grow revenue. AI is changing the way we live.
Let me show you an interesting statistic of AI statistic is taken from Statista. This is about expected revenues from the AI market worldwide from 2016 to 2025.
We are here in 2020. Artificial Intelligence is a technique of accomplishment machines to work and behave like humans. In the recent past, AI has able to accomplish this by creating machines and robots that are being used in an extensive range of fields including robotics, marketing, health care, business analytics, and many more.
Now let’s go to the types of AI official intelligence can be divided into various types. There are mainly two types of the main categorization, which are based on capabilities and based on the functionality of AI.
Now let us start with types of AI-based on capabilities. In this categorization artificial intelligence is divided into three types:
- Narrow Artificial Intelligence or weak Artificial Intelligence
- General Artificial Intelligence
- Strong Artificial Intelligence
1. Narrow Artificial Intelligence
It is a type of AI which is able to perform a dedicated task with intelligence. This AI can’t perform beyond its field or limitations, as it is only trained for one specific task. Facebook, face recognition, self-driving cars, voice assistance all comes into this category of AI.
2. General Artificial Intelligence
It is a type of AI which could perform any intellectual task with efficiency like a human. Currently, there is not any system exists which could arise under general Artificial Intelligence and can execute any task as seamless as a human. The global researchers are now focused on developing machines with general Artificial Intelligence.
3. Strong Artificial Intelligence
Strong AI is a level of intelligence systems at which machines could surpass human intelligence. Strong AI is still a hypothetical concept of artificial intelligence. Development of such systems in real life is still a world-changing task.
Types of AI based on functionality: In this categorization, AI is divided into four types:
- Reactive machine
- Limited memory
- Theory of mind
1. Reactive machine
These are the most basic types of Artificial Intelligence. They do not store any memories or past experiences for future activities. These machines only emphasis on current scenarios and only react on it as per the best possible action, IBM Deep Blue AI comes into this category.
2. Limited memory
Limited memory can store some data or past experiences for a short period of time. Self-driving cars are one of the best examples. These cars can stock recent speed of nearby cars, the space of other cars, speed limit, and other information to navigate the road.
3. Theory of mind
This will understand human emotions, people, beliefs, and be able to interact socially like humans. This type of AI is still not developed, but researchers are making lots of efforts and improvement for developing such AI machines.
The future of Artificial Intelligence is self-awareness. Machines will be super intelligent and have their own, sentiments, consciousness and self-awareness. Self-awareness Artificial Intelligence does not exist in reality, and it is a hypothetical concept.
Domains of AI
Which is also called as branches of AI. There is a broad set of methods that come in the domain of AI such as linguistics, vision, planning, robotics, bias, decision, science, natural language processing, etc.
Let us acquire information about some of the major subfields of Artificial Intelligence. They are six major subfields in AI:
- Machine learning
- Deep learning
- Expert systems
- Natural language processing
- Fuzzy logic
1. Machine learning
It is an application of Artificial Intelligence that provides the system with the ability to automatically learn and can improve from experience without explicitly programmed. Applications include NETFLIX viewing suggestions, TWITTER ranking posts etc.
2. Deep learning
It is a subset of machine learning in AI that has networks capable of learning the unsupervised form of data which is unstructured or unlabeled. Deep learning is also known as Deep neural networks or Deep neural learning. Applications include self-driving cars, voice assistance, automatic handwriting generation etc.
3. Expert systems
Expert system is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert. Expert systems are developed to solve complex problems by reasoning through bodies of knowledge, represented mainly as if-then rules rather than through conventional procedural code. Applications include MYCIN, DENDRAL PXDES etc. MYCIN helps you to identify various bacteria that could cause acute infections. DENDRAL is used for chemical analysis to predict molecular structure.
Robotics is an interdisciplinary research area at the interface of computer science and engineering. It involves the design, construction, operation and use of robots. The goal of robotics is to design intelligent machines that can help and assist humans in their day-to-day lives and keep everyone safe.
5. Natural language processing
NLP is a subfield of linguistics computer science, information engineering and Artificial Intelligence. NLP concerned with no interaction between computers, and human language Applications include speech recognition, Chatbots and Text Classification etc.
6. Fuzzy logic
Fuzzy logic is an approach to computing based on “degrees of truth” rather than usual “true or false” (1 or 0) Boolean logic on which the modern computer is based. Applications include satellite altitude control, intelligent highway systems and traffic control etc.
Applications of AI
Now let’s see some of the interesting applications of AI:
Alphago is a computer program that plays the board game GO. It was developed by Deep Mind Technologies which was later acquired by Google. In march 2016, it beat Lee Sedol in a five-game match who is 18 times World Champion with a final score of 4 games to 1 in favor of Alphago. After that Alphago zero was released and it beat Alphago with a final score of 18 games to 1 in favor of Alphago zero.
2. Google duplex
Google duplex is an AI assistant which allows certain users to make a restaurant reservation by phone. However, instead of user speaking directly to the restaurant employee, Google duplex speaks for them with a human sounding voice.
3. Twitter AI
Twitter deployed Artificial Intelligence to fight unsuitable and racist content on its platform as authorities in the UK and Germany rise measures and fines to prevent fake news, hate speech, and illegal content on social media. In the first 6 months of 2017, Twitter takes down nearly 300,000 terrorist accounts.
4. JP Morgan Coin
JP Morgan announced it had developed and deployed new software called COIN -shorthand of contract intelligence – that automate document review for a certain class of contracts. These software’s reviews in seconds the number of contracts that previously took lawyers over 360,000 man-hours.
5. Tesla Autopilot
Autopilot advanced safety and convenience structures are designed to support you with the most burdensome parts of driving. Autopilot allows your car to accelerate, steer, and brake automatically within its lane. Current autopilot features involve active driver supervision and do not make the vehicle autonomous.
6. IBM Watson
Watson is a Question-Answering computer system proficient of answering questions posed in natural language developed in IBM 2013. IBM announced that Watson software system’s first commercial system would be for utilization management decisions and lung cancer treatment in New York City.